安徽海德國際物流有限公司
諮詢熱線:0553-5840720

航空公司為啥會拉貨OFFLOAD

拉貨=offload那麼今天,我們就來探討下航司的業務邏輯。



拉貨的因素


瞭解為什麼會拉貨,必須瞭解造成拉貨的因素。不過,在展開説之前,一定要先搞清楚,我們現在講的只是普貨的情況。其他特殊貨物都是要另外考慮。例如,飛機上有人體器官,人類遺體或者活體動物。這種貨物優先度最高的。不管飛機上有什麼其他貨物,這些特殊貨物是必須優先安排。其次,除了特殊貨物,還有用高價或者Premium服務的,也肯定是優先飛。這些貨物的優先度,僅次於特殊貨物,高於除了BSA以外的一切普貨。premium服務,就是保證時效,一定要飛的貨物。當然這種貨物的空運費...嗯 幾乎要上天了。不然怎麼會叫Premium呢。不過,高價格的存在不僅是合理,而且是必須存在的。接下來我們探討下這個話題。


Factors of Offloading


To understand why goods can be offloaded, we must understand the factors of offloading. However, before we start to talk about it, we must make it clear that what we are talking about is the situation of ordinary goods. Other special goods are to be considered separately. For example, there are human organs, human remains or living animals on the plane. This kind of goods has the highest priority. No matter what other goods are on the plane, these special goods must be prioritized. Secondly, in addition to special goods, there are also high prices or premium services, which must be priority flights. The priority of these goods is second only to special goods and higher than all general goods except BSA. Premium service is to ensure the timeliness of goods that must fly. Of course, the air freight for this kind of goods... Well, it's almost up to heaven. Otherwise, how could it be called premium? However, the existence of high prices is not only reasonable, but also necessary. Let's talk about this next.


1 合約形式


能造成拉貨的因素有很多,首當其衝的肯定是合約的形式。如果交的是BSA allotment以內的貨,當然是不會被拉貨的,因為BSA都拉貨了,航司是要賠錢的。所謂allotment,就是合約上規定好一定要給到的板位。如果大家忘記了什麼是BSA,可以點擊這裏回顧我們之前的課程。但如果是allotment以外的,那就沒準了。所以在所有上航班的貨物裏,只有兩種貨物,一個是allotment貨物,一種是非allotment貨物。知道了這個首要因素之後,大家在交貨時已經心中有數了。因為只要是allotment倉位的,都不會被拉貨的。如果是非allotment呢?就不一定了。接下來我們看一看非allotment貨物的情況。


1 Form of contract


There are many factors of offloading.The first one must be the form of contract. If the goods are delivered within the BSA allocation, of course, they will not be offloaded. Because the BSA has been offloaded, the airline will lose money. The so-called allocation is the board that must be given in the contract. If you forget what BSA is, you can click here to review our previous courses. But if it's outside of allocation, it's not possible. So there are only two kinds of goods in all the flights, one is allocation goods and the other is non allocation goods. After knowing this primary factor, you already know it when you deliver the goods. Because as long as it is in the allocation position, it will not be offloaded. What if it's an allocation? Not necessarily. Let's take a look at the situation of non allocation goods.


2 貨型結構


説起這個,相信很多小夥伴都能記起我們之前説過的文章。是的,就是貨型結構。為何貨型結構可能會導致拉貨呢?如果貨型不好,造成板內打不完,或者要用到其他的板,而且不好跟其他貨物一齊拼板。那麼,打板的時候,就容易造成空間的浪費,以及其他貨物的分散性。試想,如果為了一票貨,讓其他很多貨物都要受到影響,不能整票裝上飛機的話。那問題不是其他貨,而就是這票貨。比如,有一票貨,是100個託,每塊LD只能裝6託,那麼光這票貨就要裝16塊LD。假如這些板上都不能再堆其他貨,最後就會導致浪費板位。再者,從航司的角度來看,這個航班如果全部飛這100個託,那麼load factor該有多難看啊。所以,為了能夠讓其他散貨都整票飛出去,同時儘量的提高load factor,這個100個托盤的貨就不可能一批清的。這樣一來,這票貨就會被拉下一部分了,甚至整票貨拉下,等有好的貨型時候再和他拼板一起出。

oh 對了。順便解釋下專業名詞。Load Factor,講的就是一個飛機的最終裝載率。它是衡量飛機裝載情況的重要依據。一個航班的成績表要好看,首先它的load factor要好看。這時有些小夥伴會有疑問,那麼revenue呢?這個問的好。Revenue肯定也很重要,但是load factor是大前提,沒有load factor來講revenue是不切實際的。大家可以想想,如果load factor很差,但revenue很高,這種情況唯一的可能性就是整台機都是裝泡貨。這樣,航司總部就要劈死local辦公室的人的。


2 Cargo structure


Speaking of this, I believe that many of my friends can remember the articles we said before. Yes, it's a cargo structure. Why is the cargo structure likely to lead to offloading? If the cargo structure is not good, it will lead to a lot of holes in the board, or other boards will be used, and it is not good to put the boards together with other goods. Then, when making the board, it is easy to cause the waste of space and the dispersion of other goods. Imagine that for one ticket, many other goods would be affected, and the whole ticket could not be loaded on the plane. The problem is not other goods, but this one. For example, if you have one lot of goods, it's 100 pallets, and each LD can only hold 6 pallets, then only this lot of goods will hold 16 LD. If these boards can no longer stack other goods, it will lead to waste of board position. Moreover, from the perspective of the airline, if this flight flies all of these 100 carriers, how ugly the load factor would be. Therefore, in order to make other bulk cargo fly out in full and improve the load factor as much as possible, it is impossible to clear the cargo of this 100 pallets in one batch. In this way, some of the goods will be pulled down, or even the whole bill of goods will be pulled down. When there is a good type of goods, they will go out together with him.

Oh yes. Explain the technical terms by the way. Load factor refers to the final loading rate of an aircraft. It is an important basis for measuring aircraft loading. A flight's score sheet should look good. First, its load factor should look good. At this time, some little friends have questions. What about revenue? That's a good question. Revenue is also very important, but load factor is the main premise, and it is unrealistic without load factor. You can think that if the load factor is poor, but the revenue is high, the only possibility is that the whole machine is filled with bubble goods. In this way, the headquarters of the airline will kill the people in the local office.


貨運代理業績


是的,我們又到了Agent Performance了。關於這個,我們前課程也有提過。看吧,跟大夥説了,不要臨急抱佛腳,平時要主動多交貨,想把航線做好,不是嘴上説的,是靠貨量堆起來的。如果現在手上的貨都是同樣優先級別的,那拉誰的貨好呢?如果是我,當然是要拉平時不交貨的代理。如果一直有堅持交貨,拉他貨的話,無論道理還是人情都説不過去啊。在淡季都努力交貨,旺季肯定忘不了你。假如旺季真的不夠位了,至少你的貨也上的比別人多,那已經是賺到了。所以一定要記住,貨,一定要持續的交!


 3 Agent Performance


Well,we're back at agent performance. We also mentioned this in our previous course. See, I told you, don't rush to rush. Usually, you should take the initiative to deliver more goods and try to make a good route. It's not what you say, it depends on the quantity of goods. If the goods on hand are of the same priority, whose goods are good? If it's me, of course, it's the agent who usually doesn't deliver the goods. If we always insist on delivery and pull other goods, no matter the reason or the human feelings, we can't say it. Try to deliver goods in the off-season. You will never forget in the peak season. If the peak season is really not enough, at least your goods are more than others, that's earned. So we must remember that the goods must be delivered continuously!


4 價格


ok講到這裏,就要看誰的價格高了。如果兩票貨除了單價,其餘情況都一樣。但只能走一票。那要怎麼選呢?正常的情況下,是走單價高的那票。因為航司也要performance啊。拉了高價的那票,航司也交待不了。不止總部交待不了,和客人也交待不了。這裏我們要分開情況來看,如果只是因為價格高,也不是能保證一定上飛機的。剛剛第三點説了,人家在淡季的時候,支持了那麼多,虧了那麼多,現在旺季來了,航司也要支持人家的啊。不然以後還有誰敢跟這個航司合作呢?不過你的優先度比不加錢的那些要高,這是實話。但是,如果高價的我們一開始講的premium服務的話,那就不好意思了。因為premium服務的優先度是非常的高。換句話説,如果你淡季很支持,但在旺季的時候,滿倉都是premium貨,這時你的優先度也會隨之降低的。不過航司也會酌情給你倉位,不用太過擔心,因為定規則的是人,執行規則的也是人。畢竟是人,肯定都是講道理講感情的。況且,滿倉都是premium的情況在國內很少見。香港倒是有過。因為香港市場規範,大家都會跟着這些規則來玩,那premium就大家一齊premium咯。所以,真正要玩,像香港這樣,有規矩才好玩嘛。


4 Price


OK, it depends on whose price is high. If two bills of goods are the same except for the unit price. But only one vote. How to choose? Under normal circumstances, it's the ticket with high unit price. Because airlines also need performance. The airline can't handle the high ticket. Not only the headquarters, but also the guests. Here we have to separate the situation. If it's just because of the high price, it's not guaranteed to get on the plane. As I just said in the third point, when they are in the off-season, they have supported so much and lost so much. Now that the peak season is coming, the airline should also support them. Otherwise, who dares to cooperate with this airline in the future? But your priority is higher than those without money, which is true. However, if the high price of the premium service we talked about at the beginning, it would be embarrassing. Because the priority of the premium service is very high. In other words, if you are very supportive in the off-season, but in the peak season, the full warehouse is all premium goods, then your priority will also be reduced. However, the airline will also give you a position as appropriate. Don't worry too much, because it's people who make rules and people who enforce them. After all, it's human. It must be rational and emotional. Moreover, it is rare in China that full warehouses are all premium. Hong Kong has. Because the Hong Kong market is standardized, everyone will follow these rules to play, so premium is all together. So, it's really fun to have rules like Hong Kong.


5 停機坪落貨


這個詞可能大夥比較陌生,但是現實情況是存在的。last minute offload就是本來有計劃要上飛機的,但是在最後還是沒裝上。這就要看情況了。也會有很多因素造成的。

例如,原計劃這個板確實要上飛機,但是在把板拉去機底的過程中,拖頭司機開快了,導致整板貨變型,就上不了機。這樣,就只能怨自己命苦了。當然,這種情況一般不會出現的,因為司機是屬地勤的,地勤如果出現這種情況,會遭嚴肅處理的,寫檢討扣工資什麼的...因為這是屬於嚴重的作業事故。所以這種狀況是少見的。當然,不單止司機原因,可能這塊板本來就打的不好,輕微動下就散架。這事就更復雜了,要劃分責任,假如是打板沒打好,為什麼貨站沒有檢查出來?那就是貨站打板人和監督的責任。板交到司機那裏,如果是司機沒有檢查出來,那是司機責任。如果是司機開太快了導致變型了,也是司機責任。最後,如果整個過程沒有人檢查出問題,到機底才發現問題,那麼整個地面代理公司都有問題,這個是公司層面監督和管理流程的問題啊。


還有另一種情況,這塊板最後沒上飛機。之後告訴你,受天氣影響。什麼?天氣也會影響你的貨?對的,不過這裏跳過了很多步。我來解釋一下。本來飛機上已經預留了這塊板的位置,但是由於目的地機場或者航程中的某一段,天氣非常惡劣,機長決定要加大油。通過加大油來通過那段惡劣天氣的航段。飛機的payload就那麼大了,加油多了,貨物的業載就會隨之變少。這情況通常都是最後一刻才知道的。航司的銷售人員也下班了,現場工作人員就會根據裝機單上,根據拉貨重量找最接近的板重選一塊板拉下。舉個簡單易懂例子(下面數字是編的,實際上不大可能會出現這些數字)比如,計劃payload是20噸,現在要多加5噸油,那麼就要拉貨5噸對吧?這個時候有兩塊板,一塊7噸的板,另一塊3噸的板。7噸板是standby的,3噸板是must go的。怎麼辦呢?拉3噸的肯定不夠,不用想了只能拉7噸的了,不然飛機都無法起飛了。這一刻,也不可能再拆板重新打了,完全不夠時間,也影響航班的準點率。所以,現場操作的工作人員,只能選擇拉下7噸的板,最後飛機才能順利準點起飛。


5 Last Minute Offload


The word may be unfamiliar to all, but the reality is there. Last minute offload was originally planned to get on the plane, but it was not installed in the end. It depends. There will also be many factors.

For example, it was originally planned that this board would indeed get on the plane, but in the process of pulling the board to the bottom of the plane, the tractor driver drove fast, resulting in the whole board cargo variant, so it could not get on the plane. In this way, I can only complain about my own life. Of course, this kind of situation will not occur in general, because the driver belongs to the ground service. If this happens, the ground service will be seriously dealt with. Write a review on salary deduction... Because this is a serious operation accident. So this is rare. Of course, it's not just the driver's reason. Maybe the board is not good in the first place, and it will break up when it's moved slightly. It's more complicated. We need to divide the responsibilities. If the beating is not done well, why hasn't the goods station checked out? That's the responsibility of the beating person and the supervisor of the goods station. Board to the driver, if the driver did not check out, it is the driver's responsibility. If the driver drives too fast, it is also the driver's responsibility. Finally, if no one checks out the problem in the whole process and finds the problem at the bottom of the machine, the whole ground agency company has problems. This is the problem of supervision and management process at the company level.


In another case, the board didn't get on the plane at last. I'll tell you later, affected by the weather. What? The weather will also affect your goods? Yes, but there are many steps skipped here. Let me explain. The position of this board has been reserved on the plane, but due to the bad weather at the destination airport or some part of the voyage, the captain decided to add more fuel. Pass that bad weather leg by adding more oil. The aircraft's payload is so big. If you refuel more, the cargo load will be less. This is usually known at the last minute. When the sales staff of the airline company is off duty, the on-site staff will find the closest plate according to the loading weight and select a plate to pull down. Take a simple and easy to understand example (the numbers below are compiled, which are unlikely to appear in fact). For example, if we plan to add 5 tons of oil to the payload of 20 tons, then we need to pull 5 tons of goods, right? At this time, there are two boards, one is 7 tons, the other is 3 tons. The 7-ton board is standby and the 3-ton board is must go. What should I do? I'm sure it's not enough to pull 3 tons. I don't need to think about it. I can only pull 7 tons, otherwise the plane can't take off. At this moment, it's impossible to dismantle the board again. It's not enough time at all, which also affects the punctuality rate of the flight. Therefore, the field operators can only choose to pull down the 7-ton board, and finally the plane can take off on time.





版權所有:安徽海德國際物流有限公司  地址:安徽省蕪湖市萬達廣場二期3號樓906室 聯繫電話:0553-5840720 皖ICP備12005373號-1

企業微信